Learn more about your Kidneys

26/04/2021

Act now for better prevention

  • In Indian population, about 12% of the population is expected to have urinary stones, out of which 50% may end up with loss of kidney functions
  • Chronic Kidney Disease is the 12th most

  • common cause of death and the 17th most common cause of disability globally
  • In India, Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) affects 4%

  • to 17.2% of the population
  • Share of adults 30 years and above who have

  • Chronic Kidney Disease is projected to rise by 5% over the next 5 years
Nephrological Diseases

The kidneys, each about the size of a fist, play three major roles:

  • Removing waste products from the body
  • Producing hormones that control other body functions, such as regulating blood pressure and producing red blood cells
  • Regulating the levels of minerals or electrolytes (e.g. sodium, calcium, & potassium) and fluid in the body
Different types of Kidney diseases
  • Acute Kidney Injury
  • Losing a lot of blood in case of an accident or the use of some drugs or poisons can cause sudden kidney failure. It is called Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) or Acute Renal Failure, which may lead to permanent loss of kidney function. But if the kidneys are not seriously damaged, acute kidney disease may be reversed.

  • Chronic Kidney Disease
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also called chronic kidney failure, describes the gradual loss of kidney function. When it reaches an advanced stage, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes can build up in your body. Chronic kidney disease may not become apparent until your kidney function is significantly impaired.

  • End-stage Renal Disease
  • End stage renal disease (ESRD) is the last stage (stage five) of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This means kidneys are only functioning at 10% to 15% of their normal capacity. Kidneys are also responsible balancing electrolytes and producing certain hormones. When chronic kidney disease develops into ESRD, dialysis or a kidney transplant is necessary to stay alive.

Symptoms

Mild to moderate kidney disease often does not have any symptoms. However, in End-Stage Renal Disease or Uremia, when the toxins accumulate in a person's blood, symptoms may include:

  • Puffy eyes, hands, and feet(called edema)
  • Bad taste in the mouth or bad breath
  • High blood pressure
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Generalized, persistent itchy skin
  • Shortness of breath
  • Muscle twitching or cramping
  • Loss of appetite
  • A yellowish-brown tint to the skin
  • Nausea and vomating
  • Thirst
  • Urine that is cloudy or tea-coloured

Kidney disease usually does not cause pain, but in some cases pain may occur. A kidney stone in the ureter can cause severe cramping pain that spreads from the lower back into the groin.

Causes
  • Infection such as Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
  • Obstruction due to Kidney stones
  • Lifestyle factors like Obesity
  • Heredity such as Polycystic kidney disease
  • Diuretics or medications may lead to excessive urination or incontinence
  • Food like alcohol and caffeine may also act as diuretics
Diagnosis
  • Physical examination (Edema, high blood pressure, Anaemia)
  • MR angiography
  • Renal biopsy
  • Blood tests
  • Intravenous urography (IVU)
  • Urine analysis
  • Scintigraphy
  • Gomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)
  • Renal Arteriography
  • Ultrasound scanning
Treatment

Depending on the underlying cause, some types of kidney disease can be treated. Often, though, chronic kidney disease has no cure.

Five things people with kidney disease should follow
  • Lower your blood pressure
  • Keep blood-sugar levels under control, if diabetic
  • Reduce salt intake
  • Avoid Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), a type of painkillers
  • Moderate protein consumption

If you develop complete or near-complete kidney failure, you have end-stage kidney disease. At that point, you need dialysis or a kidney transplant:

  • Dialysis: Dialysis artificially removes waste products and extra fluid from your blood when your kidneys can no longer do this. In hemodialysis, a machine filters waste and excess fluids from your blood. In peritoneal dialysis, a thin tube (catheter) inserted into your abdomen fills your abdominal cavity with a dialysis solution that absorbs waste and excess fluids. After a period of time, the dialysis solution drains from your body, carrying the waste with it.
  • Kidney transplant: A kidney transplant involves surgically placing a healthy kidney from a donor into your body. Transplanted kidneys can come from deceased or living donors. You will need to take medications for the rest of your life to keep your body from rejecting the new organ. You don't need to be on dialysis to have a kidney transplant.

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